The Search for New Vaccine Adjuvants


Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination is on the leading open-access journal making awareness to the people on vaccination through our articles. We have been publishing the articles which are having updated information about the vaccine's treatment diseases.

Immune Response Modifying Effects of Bee Venom Protein [Melittin]/ Autoclaved L. donovani complex in CD1 Mice: The Search for New Vaccine Adjuvants. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major cause of morbidity/mortality in remote areas of East Africa. Vaccines for VL can provide an effective control measure to help control/eliminate this fatal disease. To date, there is no effective anti-leishmanial vaccine. There is an urgent need to develop effective adjuvants-potentiated anti-leishmanial vaccines. Bee venom protein, melittin is a natural substance that is reported to boost the immune system providing rapid non–specific defense against infections. This study aimed to determine the immune response modifying effects of melittin and melittin/Autoclaved Leishmania donovani [ALD] complex on Swiss CD1 Albino mice. One hundred and eighty-five CD1 mice were divided into control [no vaccine] and vaccine groups [3 doses of ALD alone, melittin, melittin/ALD mixture or melittin-adsorbed ALD]. Whole blood cytokines levels [IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α] were measured using commercial ELISA kits. ALD alone group showed a significant increase in mean levels of IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α compared to controls [p=0.00004, p=0.01, and p=0.00001 respectively]. The Melittin and Melittin/ALD mixture-vaccinated mice showed significant increase in IL-10 and IFN-γ mean levels [IL-10 p=0.00001, p=0.00003; IFN-γ p=0.03, p=0.035 respectively], while the mean levels of TNF-α decreased significantly [p=0.00009, p=0.001] compared to controls. Melittin-adsorbed ALD reduced significantly the mean levels of IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α [p=0.00001, p=0.00008 and p=0.000001 respectively]. In conclusion, melittin alone and Melittin/ALD complex affected significantly Th1 and Th2 immune responses in Swiss CD1 Albino mice. Meltttin could be a potentially effective adjuvant for future anti-leishmania vaccines.

Bee Venom protein melittin modulates both Н1 and Н2 immune responses in Swiss CD1 Albino mice. Melittin-adsorbed ALD is a potentially good candidate to be taken for future protective antileishmania vaccine studies based on its marked inhibitory ejects on Н2 immune responses.

Thanks & Regards,
John Kimberly
Editorial Manager
Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination