Nanotechnology in Pathology Diagnosis
In modern medicine, real-time, personalised, and highly sensitive early-stage disease diagnosis remains a major challenge. Nanotechnology architectures and materials may theoretically expand subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of traditional diagnostic modalities, thanks to their ability to communicate with matter at the nanoscale. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to significantly speed up biomarker discovery and disease monitoring, especially for diseases with a lot of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. At the molecular level, many illnesses, including cancer, are caused by mutations and modifications to normal cellular regulatory and metabolic pathways. The lack of biosensors and molecular probes capable of rapidly identifying the distinct molecular features of these diseases has hindered accurate and sensitive diagnosis. A new generation of early-stage diagnostic techniques has been enabled by nanomaterials and nanopatterned devices' ability to directly interact with biologically significant molecules and transform those interactions into directly transduced or substantially amplified electrical or electromagnetic signals. The more precise the therapeutic regime can be adapted to the person, the more detailed the molecular components of a specific disease can be determined. Microfluidics and ‘lab on a chip' systems with nanoscale features have allowed a variety of complex diagnostic procedures to be integrated into a single simple device for point-of-care diagnosis. Conventional radiological diagnostic methods currently focus on identifying disease's physical manifestations. Given the high correlation between survival rate and early detection, detecting irregular cellular activity before major physiological changes become evident is highly beneficial. Breast cancer may also be detected by observing tumour cells directly using methods such as the cytomorphology of exfoliated cells. Because of the subjective nature of tumour cell detection and the labor-intensive nature of the procedure, direct visualisation of tumour cells does not lend itself to routine population-wide screening of asymptomatic women.
Journal of Medical and Surgical Pathology
ISSN: 2472-4971 | NLM ID: 101245791