In vitro fertilization (IVF)
Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics is an peer-reviewed, open-access scholarly journal focused on publishing articles in all aspects of academic journal and aims to publish most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide.
IVF was originally envisioned as a solution for severe tubal factor infertility. Fertilization, embryo culture, and transport to the uterus are normal functions of the human fallopian tube. The laboratory serves as a surrogate for this process. Initially, IVF was performed in a “natural” cycle—that is one in which no medications for ovarian stimulation were employed. This resulted in the recovery of a single oocyte, with the transfer (hopefully) of a single embryo. This process has been modified over the years to include ovarian stimulation (initially with clomiphene citrate, later with human menopausal gonadotropins, and currently with recombinant gonadotropins), such that multiple oocytes may be retrieved. This results in the fertilization of more than one oocyte and the potential transfer of more than one embryo. Furthermore, retrieval techniques have evolved from laparotomy, to laparoscopy, to ultrasound guided transabdominal oocyte retrieval, to transurethral oocyte retrieval, to the current practice of transvaginal ultrasound guided oocyte retrieval. This procedure does not require general anesthesia and can be easily accomplished in an outpatient setting. It additionally has the advantage of ovarian accessibility, as many of the patients undergoing IVF have severe pelvic adhesive disease that would make laparoscopic retrieval virtually impossible.
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Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics
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