Emergence of Antibiotic Resistance
The capacity of bacteria to resist against the ejects of an antibiotic is called antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is due to the change in bacteria by some approach that eliminates or reduces the efficiency of chemicals, drugs, or other agents designed for treatment against infections. The survival and continuously multiplication of bacteria causes more destruction in human body. A few years back, main focus of research was centered regarding gram-positive bacteria resistant. Currently, clinical microbiologists strongly are in view that multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria are the major risk for human health. The gram-negative bacteria resistance increasing faster than in gram-positive bacteria. There are rarer developing and new antibiotics active against gram-negative bacteria and drug enhancement programs look adequately on the matter to provide therapeutic protection in last two decades. In the present time, it was reported from different hospitals situated at different places in Pakistan that bacteria isolated from different infections were becoming gradually resistant to traditional antibiotics. In Pakistan the usage of antibiotic is unnecessarily high and due to over exposure of the drugs bacteria are getting resistance against these drugs. There are very few reports evaluating the antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with different infections in Pakistan. Here are some examples of antibiotic resistance occurred in Pakistan at different places. A. baumannii are displaying resistance to numerous kind of antibiotics at high level. Acinetobacter species, through the formation of diverse carbapenemase enzymes, class D oxacillinases (OXAs) and class B metallo-b-lactamases (MBLs), showed resistance to carbapenems. The resistance against ceіriDxone and quinolones, used in non typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS), is increasing in Pakistan. Even the resistant potential was introduced against penicillin. In general, the rate of resistance to novobiocin, amoxicillin, cefaclor, and ampicillin was from 62 to 75%. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is increasing in Pakistan and it has been highlighted in a study that 77.5% of all the screened isolates were resistant to three or more than three of the tested antibiotics. Different reports regarding the development of antibiotic resistance in Pakistan confirm the drastic increase of antibiotic resistance or even the development of MDR across the country.
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Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination